What are dietary supplements, how do they differ from conventional drugs, what are their benefits, and when can they even be harmful – learn about all this in our article, as well as what Dietary supplements from the USA in Ukraine, Kyiv - BIO.ORG.UA as a service.
The concepts of a biological supplement for weight loss, a biological supplement for improving potency, a biological supplement for the liver, a biological supplement for the joints have suddenly burst into our reality – it happens that we are offered biologically active supplements, or dietary supplements, from all over the world! What does the reduction of dietary supplements mean, how to distinguish really useful supplements, who may need them, when and how to use them?
What are dietary supplements?
Biologically active supplement (abbreviated BAD), or dietary supplement – is a special food product that is consumed in small defined quantities in addition to the usual human diet and is a concentrated source of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, fiber , proteins, fats, carbohydrates, etc. In the English-language literature, the equivalent of the term biologically active supplement is the definition of dietary supplement.
Biologically active supplements contain substances that are natural or identical to natural components, occupy an intermediate place between food products and medicines and are intended for the prevention of diseases, improvement of working capacity and quality of life.
The purpose of using biologically active supplements is to correct and supplement the diet, because every day we have to eat processed, canned, refined food, from which we do not get the necessary amount of amino acids, vitamins, minerals, macro- and microelements. An insufficient amount of these useful substances reduces the body's resistance to various diseases, slows down metabolic processes, and a person ages faster. Therefore, dietary supplements can be used even by healthy people.
However, it is a mistake to consider dietary supplements as a panacea for all diseases. After all, they do not treat, but only supplement the main treatment and do not belong to the register of medicinal products. Dietary supplements are designed to maintain the physiological norms and functions of the body, so they cannot have miraculous results. Dietary supplements cannot be used as the main treatment for diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, bronchial asthma, other complex ailments, but only as a supplement to the main therapy on the recommendation of a doctor.
Pay attention to the names of the components if you use several dietary supplements. In the composition of various nutritional supplements, the components can be repeated, so they will enter the body in excess.
Types of biologically active additives
According to the technological process, as a result of which a biologically active additive is obtained, the following are distinguished:
- concentrates of food substances of natural origin – products of beekeeping, mummy, yeast, algae, fish roe and liver, water from mineral springs, mineral salts;
- traditional seasonings (spices), herbs and mixtures for preparing teas, dried fruits, pickles, fermented products due to fermentation;
- vitaminized food products and products enriched with specific states of lactic acid bacteria (kefir and yogurt) in a certain concentration;
- concentrates of food substances and plants – extracts, extracts, tinctures, syrups, pastes, briquettes, balms;
- highly concentrated and pure standardized extracts, artificial and synthetic vitamin preparations, phospholipid, polypeptide and glycoprotein complex preparations, the production of which is similar to the pharmacological production of drugs;
- products obtained using bioengineering.
According to the functional role and effect of the biologically active supplement, the following are distinguished:
Nutriceuticals – these are additional sources of nutrients (nutrients), for example, vitamins, essential amino acids.
Parapharmaceuticals – substances that perform adaptogenic functions, provide prevention of pathogenic conditions and are used as a means of auxiliary therapy to regulate the functional activity of organs and systems of the human body within physiological limits. Parapharmaceuticals include bioflavonoids, organic acids, glycosides, biogenic amines, regular oligopeptides, polysaccharides or oligosaccharides, etc.
Eubiotics, probiotics – these are living microorganisms that are representatives of the normal microflora of the human gastrointestinal tract, most often they are bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, which have a positive effect on human health and immunity.
In the literature, you can find synonymous and other terms used in the topic of health, nutrition, healthy lifestyle and food safety, namely:
- dietary supplement;
- biologically active food additive;
- functional food product;
- food products for special dietary consumption or special food products;
- food supplement.
Dietary supplement (English Dietary Supplement) – it is vitamin, vitamin-mineral or herbal supplements (individually and/or in combination) in the form of pills, tablets, powders taken with food or added to food within physiological norms for additional use of these substances compared to regular food; dietary supplements may also contain protein, carbohydrates, amino acids, edible oils and extracts of plant and animal materials, which are considered necessary or useful for nutrition and general human health (Law of Ukraine dated 06.09.2005 No. 2809-IV «On Quality and safety of food products and food raw materials".
Biologically active food supplement – it is the same as dietary supplements. This term is a little outdated, but it is used in the legal field when registering for sale.
Functional food product – a food product that contains medicinal products as a component and/or is offered for the prevention or mitigation of the course of a human disease. quality and safety of food products and food raw materials".
Food products for special dietary consumption (use) – food products that are specially processed or designed to meet specific dietary needs that exist due to a specific physical or physiological condition of a person and/or a specific disease or disorder, and which are sold as such, including baby food products, food for athletes and the elderly (Law of Ukraine dated September 6, 2005 No. 2809-IV "On the quality and safety of food products and food raw materials"). Until 2005, it was applied the name special food products, which is synonymous with Food products for special dietary consumption.
Food additive – any substance that is not usually considered a food product or its component, but is added to a food product for a technological purpose in the production process and which as a result becomes an integral part of the product (Law of Ukraine from 09/06/2005 No. 2809-IV "On the quality and safety of food products and food raw materials". Food additives are well known to us by their designations, codes, for example, E121 or E123.
Standardized biologically active supplements
Standardized supplements have defined declared amounts of active ingredients. The production of additives is carried out at enterprises of the food, pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Biologically active additives are subject to mandatory sanitary and epidemiological examination (certification). During the examination, the composition, active substances, formulation, quality and safety indicators of the product, scope of application, recommendations for use, contraindications, materials for toxicological, hygienic and biological assessment are checked.
It is better to buy dietary supplements at a pharmacy – here they have all the necessary documents and are stored in proper conditions.
Biological supplements for women
Biological supplements for younger women
Women physiologically lose a certain amount of iron every month, which is an important trace element. With a low iron content in a woman's body, a state of anemia (anemia) occurs, which can be detected by a general blood test (CBC) from a finger. In the case of anemia, all processes of the body's work are disturbed, because the cells do not receive a sufficient amount of oxygen, which is carried in our body thanks to the iron molecule in the composition of red blood cells, erythrocytes. Therefore, when signs of iron deficiency are detected, it is important for young women to use iron preparations.
In order for iron to be well absorbed, the presence of vitamin C and the absence of digestive disorders is necessary. By the way, drugs taken to relieve heartburn can disrupt the absorption of iron by the body.
Symptoms of anemia in women can also be caused by a deficiency (insufficient amount) of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B9 (folic acid) and vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), especially against the background of long-term intestinal disorders. To prevent the development of deficiency states, the doctor can prescribe vitamin preparations containing B vitamins, as well as probiotics that normalize the intestinal microflora.
Recently, biotin, the so-called beauty vitamin, has become quite popular. After all, vitamin H (B7, biotin) ensures beauty, health and good condition of hair and skin.
Biological supplements for pregnant women
Pregnant women need to eat a lot of vegetables, greens and fruits. However, to ensure the normal development of the child's nervous system, starting at the planning stage of pregnancy, doctors prescribe the use of folic acid (vitamin B9).
Biological supplements for older women
In the period preceding menopause, as well as during menopause, to reduce unpleasant vegetative-vascular manifestations ("hot flashes"), it is practiced to prescribe drugs containing phytoestrogens. Phytoestrogens, which are chemically similar to estradiol ( the most active female sex hormone), can exert both an estrogenic effect and, conversely, reduce the concentration and weaken the effect of own female sex hormones. In general, the results of research on the effect of phytoestrogens on the body are quite contradictory and require further study. Wide use of these substances is also known as part of cosmetic products for older women.
Calcium and vitamin D are recommended for the prevention of osteoporosis (decrease in bone tissue density and, accordingly, increase in fragility and fragility of bones). Read about the prevention of osteoporosis and joint pain in our article.Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are found in large quantities in fish and seafood. Also known is alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) of plant origin, contained, for example, in flaxseed and oil. Omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids are necessary for a good condition, elasticity of vessel walls, to reduce the chronic inflammatory process, release of anti-inflammatory substances by the body. In case of insufficient consumption of fish products, doctors can recommend preparations of omega-3 fatty acids.
Chondroprotectors (or biological supplements for joints) mainly contain chondroitin sulfate (CS) and glucosaminoglycan (GG), hydrolyzed glycogen. The task of chondroprotectors is to protect the joints, prevent their premature destruction, aging, and preserve the functional mobility of the joints. Components of chondroprotectors – substances of natural origin – are contained in cartilage, jello (digested collagen forms gelatin), and also in seafood. Accordingly, for example, a biologically active supplement with shark cartilage is of natural origin. Glucosaminoglycan and chondroitin sulfate. these are nutrients for chondrocytes and building material for hyaluronic acid, which forms a gel-like structure and is an important "cushioning" a component of intra-articular fluid, as well as, for example, skin. Cosmetic preparations for wrinkles often contain hyaluronic acid, but it should not be abused either!